TMI: Leaders Who Share Too Much

Transparency builds trust. TMI overwhelms. Can leaders share too much? I received this note from a Let’s Grow Leaders subscriber:

“The organization I work for prides itself on transparency – I too believe this is very important – however, there are some times when we try to be transparent when the information actually discourages the receiving party unnecessarily. I have been promoting transparency when there is good to be had – and not a way of removing guilt.”

So I open the conversation to the LGL community. When do leaders share too much?

4 Ways Leaders Share Too Much

  1. Sharing Angst – Share vision. Share rationale. Share decision-making processes. Don’t share angst. Sharing too much may make you feel better, but stress multiplies as it rolls down hill. Better to buffer. Teach political savvy, but pare them from turmoil and distracting B.S.
  2. Feedback Overload – Your team wants straight-talk and deserves to know where they stand. Pace yourself. No one can grow when watered with a feedback firehose. Position feedback so that it can be heard and acted on at a reasonable pace.
  3. Admitting Every Flaw – Don’t feel compelled to expose every imperfection. If guests compliment me on my home at a party, there’s no need to admit I shoved all the toys into a big pile in the basement. “Thank you” works just find. Teach your team to position their work in a positive manner, and address significant concerns head on. It’s okay to positively position your work.
  4. Group Therapy – You want to show up as a real human being. Being vulnerable helps others to share. But, don’t over do it. Over sharing distracts from the vision and the work at hand. Maintain an appropriate balance.

9 Good Intentions That Aggravate Your Team

I aggravate the teams I lead and the leaders I follow. You do too, even when you’re trying to help. Most aggravating leadership starts with good intentions.

9 Good Intentions that Aggravate Your Team

Beware of these easy traps:

  1. Just Trying To Help – Before you know it, your well-intentioned advice is over-bearing. Hanging around with your sleeves rolled up is ticking them off. Those “how’s it going” stop-ins, feel like “helicoptering.” They need space to try, grow and fail. Let them.
  2. Building Consensus – You want to build consensus. But that takes time, and people want to move. Resist the urge to over-stakeholder. Stop worrying about everyone’s feelings. Find the balance between consensus and action.
  3. Looking For The Best Solution – You want to get it right and there are so many ways to approach the problem. You keep searching, and encourage your team to find the best solution. At some point, enough is enough. Make a plan and move on.
  4. Asking For Input – You ask for input, but you have strong opinions. When you ask, but don’t listen. You really tick them off. Don’t ask if you plan to eventually to tell.
  5. Big New Ideas – Your team loves your energy and big ideas. But, sometimes you’re confusing. Be sure to link this new idea with the bigger strategy. Stop changing gears every time you have an energetic burst. Be sure you follow-through.
  6. Being Nice – Can lead to wimpy feedback. If it’s bad, say so. They want to know the truth.
  7. Team Building – You’re working hard to build a great team. Conflict is part of that. Stop avoiding controversial topics. Let them argue. Get uncomfortable. You will all emerge stronger.
  8. Grooming – You want them to learn from your mistakes. You know the best way to act in certain scenarios. But times are changing, and they’ve got other input as well. Be sure you leave room in the development process for them to become their best selves. (see also, Are We Over-Grooming Our Leaders)
  9. Note: So grateful for the crowd sourcing from the Lead With Giants, Lead Change, and Center For Creative Leadership Communities providing input on this post. Namaste.

    *Photo by Larry Kohlenstein

Shackled Truth: Words Left Unsaid

Don’t shackle your truth. When you leave words unsaid. Your team loses, your world stays unchanged, and you know it could be better.

I worked this week with a mix of fantastic leaders across a spectrum of leadership roles and industries in a keynote I gave at the International Customer Service Association. 

Early in the game, I asked each person to write down a “strong leadership strength which they frequently hide.” I was surprised and saddened by the #1 answer.

Telling the Truth

Folks yearn to tell the truth, share their knowledge, and express their opinions but are slowed by fear of:

  • Authority
  • Backlash
  • Upset employees
  • Not being accepted
  • Failure
  • Consequences
  • Bosses
  • Losing my position

“What if I’m wrong?” or “my boss disagrees” “I don’t fit in.” “there are other strong voices in the room.” The fear of these vital leaders is also your fear, my fear, our fear.

Unschackled Truth

“Truth is mighty and will prevail. There is nothing the matter with this, except that it ain’t so.”
~ Mark Twain

We work so hard to unshackle truth. Scar tissue, dynamics, fear of losing the familiar, keep us cautious. Your team may be holding back more than you think. A few thoughts on unshackling:

  • Ask questions for which you have no idea of the answer
  • Tell the truth (up, down, and sideways)
  • Listen more than is practical
  • Ask open-ended questions
  • Take deliberate actions on what you hear
  • Recognize the truth sayers

*Photo by Larry Kohlenstein

Shaken Not Stirred

The secret to moving and shaking is stirring. Anyone in power can shake and intimidate. Real leaders stir hearts and minds toward powerful possibility. Growing leaders long to be stirred, not shaken.

Shaken Not Stirred

Joe was visibly shaken as he left the readout with the senior team. His results were solid, and he was prepared to share his team’s story. He just hadn’t anticipated that line of questioning. He could feel the conversation going sideways, and then he choked. 

He’d seen this movie before, and it doesn’t end well. The questions turned to sarcasm mixed with a few “gotchas.”

He left humiliated, stressed, and worried about what to tell his team. Should he be transparent and expose his fumble? Or downplay it, and buffer the feedback?

The last thing on his mind was how to improve the actual work. Instead he vowed to study more, bring more data, and stay up a bit later to rehearse. He said a little prayer that his career was not too deeply damaged. Joe was shaken, not stirred.

Stirred Not Shaken

Mike was full of anxiety as he approached the leadership readout. Last time, he was caught off guard and he knows the career implications of screwing up twice. When the question came that he couldn’t answer, he instantly felt the blood drain from his face. He stuttered in his response.

The next comment surprised him. “Mike, we know you know your business better than any of us. We just want to help you improve. We are here to support you. Let me rephrase the question.”

What followed was a series of open-ended questions and exciting dialogue. Joe stopped searching for the “right” answer and spoke from his heart.

He shared his latest wild and crazy idea. Everyone chimed in on the pros and cons. He left with tangible feedback on next steps, and areas to improve. He quickly huddled with his team to share the experience and inspire next steps.

He looked forward to the next review to share the team’s progress. Mike was stirred, not shaken. Why do we still have so much shaken going on?

23 Great Thoughts On Leadership Development: A Frontline Festival

I’m delighted to present the September edition of the Frontline Festival. This month’s focus: Leadership Development. I encourage you to read the insights and share your perspectives. Namaste.

Leadership Development

Jon Mertz of Thin Difference offers, You Are Born to Be Brave: How Do You Sustain It. “To be an effective leader, we need to understand where our bravery comes from and what empowers it so that we can lead with purpose and solve problems with the right actions.” Amen.

Julie Winkle Giuliani of juliewinklegiulani.com shares Everything I Needed to Know About Leadership, I Learned When My Kids Entered Kindergarten. So great that we get to relive these important lessons with our kids. I must say, I’m learning a lot from second grade and freshman year in college too.

Dan Rockwell, Leadership Freak shares his post How Peter Drucker Mentored. The best point: “Accountability requires a volunteer.”

Jesse Lynn Stoner, Seapoint Center, shares The Space Between Closely Supervising and Delegating. She shares practical advice for leading in the space between closely supervising that can be too much, and delegating which can be too little. Fantastic read for frontline leaders.

Dan McCarthy, of Great Leadership shares his recent post 10 Succession Planning Best Practices. For a practical guide to implementing leadership development and succession planning programs check out his ebook as well.

David M. Dye of Trail Blaze brings us 18 Truths You Really Can’t Avoid if You Want to Stay Relevant, Effective, and Connected. Leaders who avoid landing in the dust-bin of history do one thing consistently: they learn. David provides 18 principles that will help you both learn and grow as a leader as well as ensure your team remains relevant no matter what happens.

Lolly Daskal of Lead From Within, brings us The Wisdom of Insecurities. As leaders, when we are honest about our insecurities we become vulnerable in our state of development. Attention to our own experiences can provide insights into the ways we can grow.

Matt McWilliams of MattMcWilliams.com shares You Are Not a Natural Leader. “There is no such thing as a natural leader. Great leaders are great by choice.” So, agree. Leadership is never handled.

Pete Friedes brings his Lead Change Group post, 16 Beliefs Held By Effective People Managers. Your personal beliefs can enhance or limit your effectiveness as a manager. Here’s a checklist. How are you doing?

Chery Gegelman of Simply Understanding shares What’s Outside Your Comfort Zone. I love her list of small ways we can begin pushing ourselves out of our comfort zones.

Dan Forbes of Lead With Giants shares an important post about developing your leadership authenticity, 5 Words that Changed the US Army and Leadership.

Leaders cross our paths every day, many of whom go unnoticed. This post Leaders, Leaders Everywhere Every Day, by Robyn McLeod of Chatsworth Consulting Group shares what to look for – the traits and ways of being – to find the leaders in your midst who are having a positive impact on your employees and your organization.

Joan Kofodimos of Teleos Consulting shares How Hardship Creates Leaders. So many young leaders aspire to an unbroken chain of “successes.” But it’s actually hardship that more powerfully builds wisdom in leaders. What does hardship teach leaders, and how can you best survive and thrive as a leader when these hardships inevitably occur?

Blair Glaser of Blair Glaser wins the award for best title, Three & A Half Words That Will Make You An Exceptional Lover & Leader.

Joy and Tom Guthrie of Vizwerx Group, LLC share their art, Shopping for Leadership Development.

Kate Nasser of katenasser.com brings us Leadership People Skills: 5 Essentials to Spark Team Agility. My favorite, “untie the nots”.

Wally Bock of Three Star Leadership shares Becoming a Great Leader is Up to You. If you want to become a great leader, you have to take responsibility for your own development.

John Hunter of Curious Cat Management Improvement Blog, shares Practical Ways to Respect People. Leading people effectively requires more than authority. Change has to start from the top. You need to understand people (and organizations as systems) in order to take effective action as a leader.

Leigh Steere shares her clever Lead Change Group post, 10 Management Lessons From Harry Potter. Need a break from your diet of business books? Consider some management wisdom from Albus Dumbledore and the Potter cast of characters.

Frank Sonnenberg of Frank Sonnenberg Online shares, Attention Leaders We Need to Talk. For more about Frank, read Lolly Daskal’s interview with Frank in the Huffington Post.

New to the Frontline Festival

Kimunya Mugo of Lead By Choice shares his powerful experience of personal growth in his post, Rise Up Titans. My favorite point, “leadership is complementary, not competitive.”

Jarie Bolander of enduranceleader.com shares 4 Proven Methods To Encourage Others To Step Up & Lead. My personal favorite #3, “Ask others to encourage them.”

Chantal Bechervaise of Take it Personel-ly shares her post Seek Criticism In Order To Improve Yourself. I love her examples of practical questions to ask if you really want constructive feedback.

Call For Submissions

Have a post you’d like included in an upcoming Frontline Festival? Contact me at letsgrowleaders@gmail.com for more information.

October – Vision and Values
November – Gratitude
December – Gifts

4 Surprising Reasons You’re Hiring The Wrong Candidate

You work hard to select the right candidate. Missing the mark is emotionally and financially expensive. Take a deeper look at your processes. The techniques you use to find Ms. Right, may be leaving you with Mr. Just Okay. Don’t settle for good, attract great.

4 Surprising Reasons You’re Hiring the Wrong Candidate

  1. It’s Not them, It’s You – Top-notch internal candidates do their homework. They know which leaders will challenge, develop, and grow their careers. If you don’t have candidates approaching you about opportunities before you have an opening, take a look at your leadership. Be the leader everyone wants to work for and tells their friends about. Improve you, to attract them.
  2. Too Much Help From HR – I spent the first decade of my career in HR and have recruited and hired thousands. I also know how I was measured in those roles. Diversity mix, time to hire, % with college degree. All useful considerations, but your HR team may have other motivations than hiring the best candidate for your role. If HR is pushing you to hire a candidate for the “wrong” reasons, push back. Engage your HR team as strategic partners in your success. Link their measurements of success to yours. Slow down and keep looking if necessary. Let diversity be the side effect of great talent, not the driving force.
  3. They Nail The Structured Interview – HR loves structured interviews because they keep hiring managers from asking something stupid. I find they’re a great gauge of one competency: how well the candidate’s mastered the structured interview process. You want a candidate with the right experience, not just interviewing experience. Structured interviewers get better with practice. Supplement your structured interview with deeper questions and lots of homework to verify their stories. See also How To Stink At A Behavior-Based Interview and Interviewing: 4 Ways To Set Yourself Apart.
  4. You’re Using A Robust Recruiting System – Recruiting systems make hiring managers lazy. Systems like Evolve provide rigor in identifying candidates against an ideal profile. Useful in many contexts, particularly in call centers and other entry-level hiring, such systems are helpful, but not sufficient. I’ve seen too many companies select candidates that look great on paper, who quit or are fired in the first 90 days. You can’t outsource selection to a system, or even to an HR department. Insist on being part of the hiring process.

Confident Humility: The Conversation Continues

Two of our most popular conversations on Lets Grow Leaders involve the concept of confident humility. See both of these related articles: 9 Ways Confident Leaders Remain Humble and Can We Teach Humility?.

The active dialogue from your inspired comments attracted interest from the extended community. I had the opportunity to extrapolate the converation in an interview with Jesse Lahey on his Engaging Leaders poodcast and in an interview with Mark Tobin. I share each of these conversations today.

Confident Humility: A Podcast

Listen to the podcast by going to Engaging Leader.

Karin and Jesse discuss:

  • Why humility matters so much in leadership
  • Being confident but still remaining humble
  • Five ways to teach confident humility
  • Confidence + Humility = Credibility

Karin and Jesse also address these questions from listeners:

  • Does humility get in the way of executive presence?
  • If the concept of humility was not learned as a child. Do you really think it can be learned in adulthood, especially if the person has already achieved success or leader status?

An Interview with Mark Tobin

Tobin writes:

mark-tobin-200x300“I’m fortunate that practically all my corporate clients genuinely care about leadership and demonstrate this commitment in our engagement. However, many executives claim to be interested in leadership yet their behavior often doesn’t match their speech. I’ve recently crossed paths with a senior leader (not a client) who writes about and demonstrates leadership.

Karin and I both blogged about the coexistence of confidence and humility in leadership and exchanged thoughts (Can Confidence & Humility Coexist In A Leader?). I recently interviewed Karin about our shared thoughts on leaders and leadership.

Read the interview here: Thoughts On Leadership From A Fortune 20 Executive

What I Appreciate Most About Your Leadership

What do you appreciate most about each member of your team. Have you told them? The other night I heard a fantastic leadership best practice.

Every time the leader has someone new join his team, he takes the time to write down “why I hired you,” frames it, and gives it to the new team member. Powerful, confidence-building reinforcement.

Each new employee starts the job knowing what their new boss appreciates most. Buoying reinforcement, sprinkled with insights into what their new leader cares about.

I was sharing this idea with a leader on my team, and lamented, I sure wish I had done that for you guys. She looked right at me, and said. “It’s not too late.” Her thirsty look made me realize I had work to do.

So this Sunday morning, I worked to identify the 3 areas I most appreciate about each member of my direct report team. I didn’t over think it. The whole exercise took less than an hour. No fancy frames, just a weekend email to start their week.

Why It Was Hard

Just as I started to write, my internal struggle began. What if. They were disappointed in the characteristics I appreciated? I would have to be clear, this was merely my view on how their leadership was showing up, a subjective, single perspective.

I also realized how little practice I had just recognizing leadership qualities, without the context of accomplishments or results. I did not want to appreciate them for amazing year over year growth. It was about how, not what.

And of course there was the awkward constraint of only focusing on appreciation. We live in a balanced feedback world. I resisted the urge to share the “and now you just need to work on” stuff. Save that for another day.

What I Appreciate Most

The exercise became a meditation. I felt deep appreciation and connection bubbling up. I became overwhelmed by thoughts of synergy, and how much I appreciated them as a collective team. As I looked at the total list, it was not lost on me that what I chose to appreciate, said as much about me as them. I appreciated characteristics I’m missing, and those I value deeply.

A few excerpts from these notes…

I appreciate your:

  • high-energy, fascinated approach to everything. You love life and it shows.
  • relentless efforts to build genuine teams (down, up, and sideways). You live your motto, “no one wins unless we’re all winning”
  • strategic approach to what’s most important. You’re not easily distracted by “noise.”
  • deep desire to grow, eagerness to learn, and willingness to try
  • highly developed ability to listen, listen some more, and then speak with wisdom
  • strategic, scenario-based thinking. I love that before I can finish a sentence, you have a calculator doing the math
  • commitment to God and your family. It shows in your day job.

Tell each member of your team what you most appreciate about them. Be specific. Write it down. Don’t assume they heard you the last time you said it in the context of the other noise. The exercise will enhance your leadership. Let us know how it goes.

*Photo by Larry Kohlenstein

5 Reasons To Close Your Open Door

You love an open door. So do I. You want to be all things to all people – all of the time. But, that’s impossible. We open our office doors as a symbolic gesture saying, “I’m always here for you.” Good in theory. But, if Sam knocks in the middle of your meeting with Sally, someone loses.

I once had a boss whose open door policy (coupled with a high need for control), led to a constant line of people outside his open door, waiting for affirmation. Big time waster. Appointments would have worked better. So would empowerment (but that’s another post).

I’m over the constantly open physical door. All my eggs are in the metaphorical open door basket. Call me any time, about anything. And if I can’t get to you now, it will be very soon. If my doors shut with people inside, don’t knock unless it’s urgent. If it’s urgent, kick it in. No questions asked.

Why I Like an Open Door with Hinges

  1. When I’m With You, I’m With YOU – A closed-door meeting provides time to focus on the who and now. Disappearing distractions build deeper connection and foster creativity. Get real, speak frankly, and get it done.
  2. Power Pauses – Many leaders drop everything when their boss calls. It’s a dangerous precedent. Your team is watching you. Your actions inadvertently say, “drop everything when I call too.” A closed door may help your boss to pause. Best to have a good signaling system for such occasions.
  3. Taking It Offline – My world is filled with tough conversations. Too much crap is aired in big meetings. I’m a big fan of smaller meetings to speak (and listen to) tough truths.
  4. Time To think – I love early mornings. The door is open and the air is full of ideas. But sometimes your best thinking can’t be scheduled. Sometimes vision must come fast. When you need a minute, close your door. Taking a minute to yourself may save your team hours.
  5. Your Turn – Why do you close the door? Or are you in the open door all the time camp? Would love to discuss both sides.

How To Impress An Executive

He was sitting in for his boss at the executive’s staff meeting. He followed her leadership blog so he had a sense of what’s in her head.

She had just written about how to make the most of a temporary seat at the table. He followed her formula. Good start.

There was one vital topic her team was debating. The issue was complex, so they decided to do some more work and revisit the following week. He listened intently, but didn’t say much. 

On Sunday he emailed her (and the team) a carefully thought-out proposal, neatly articulated in Powerpoint. Strategic, subtle, ambitious.

She arranged for follow-up call to discuss further. Another seat at the table. Before the meeting he stakeholdered the model with her right hand expert whom she had invited to the meeting as well.

This guy was impressed and validated his strategy and thinking. Her right hand then invited him to partner on all future meetings on the topic. Yup, more seats at more tables. She asked questions about the model, but also about him.

Executive: What other aspects of the business are you most interested in learning (this was substantially outside of his normal responsibilities).

Impressive Guy: “All. I want to learn as much as I can.” And then some examples along with how his experience would add value in those arenas (think elevator speech in action).

Executive:  Hmm…the next step would be negotiations with a lot of key players. How do you do when you buy a car.

Impressive Guy: Actually, I do quite well. You see, I owned my own business before I came to this corporation. I had to negotiate contracts and other tough situations all the time confidence, well timed.

I’m impressed. I asked for permission to share his story which has only just begun.

How To Be A Successful Intrapreneur (Even If You’re Old)

I’m sick of being told how to win the hearts and minds of millennials. I’ve never bought into the notion that an entire generation of human beings falls into a prototype we can master. I’ve been brewing this sentiment for decades. I thought the HR meetings I attended as a young HR leader (including charts of “what Gen Xers need”) equally silly.

There’s a spectrum of humans in every generation.

The world changes fast, the generations work to adapt. We ALL need to learn to navigate the evolving landscape. That’s what I found most intriguing about millennial, Dan Schawbel’s, new book: Promote Yourself: The New Rules of Career Success He’s a millennial giving advice to other millennial. It’s full of fantastic advice for millennials, and some for the rest of us.

How to Become an Intrapreneur

What moved me from reading to giving Dan a call was his advice on Intrapreneurship (see definition). Intrapreneurship can serve as a gateway to acquire entrepreneurial skills for later use, or as a way to make a difference and get noticed in your current company.

Dan’s advice on WHY to be an Intrapreneur

Intrapreneurship.

  • Allows you to create new positions and advance in your career faster than you might have been able to on the regular track
  • Gives you unique experiences that differentiate you from your peers.
  • Is less risky than being an entrepreneur because you’ll have the corporation’s resources available.
  • Can be a bridge to becoming full-on entrepreneur later on

Not just kid stuff.

So how do you know if Intrapreneurship is right for you? Dan suggests that if half or more of the following statements are true for you, you should “definitely” consider pursuing intrapreneurship

  1. You’ve got a passion for something your company isn’t doing right now.
  2. You see opportunities that other don’t.
  3. You’re creative and innovative in your thinking.
  4. You’re willing to take risks.
  5. You’re a great networker and can build cross-functional relationships
  6. You’re a natural salesperson.
  7. You’re good at working on teams and collaborating.
  8. You’re politically savvy and understand how your company operates.

What I didn’t see on his list is be “under 35.”

Want to be an intrapreneur? If you are a millennial ask these questions:

If this was your company where would invest?
What’s the next break through idea?

If you are over 35 ask the same thing. It’s not too late.

What are you waiting for?

Want to learn more from Dan? Join him for a Free Webcast on September 10th 5:30-7:30 pm EDT 

Note: While I was writing this post, the guy on the train next to me (not a millennial) and I got to talking. He shared, “Oh, my company is all about this. You come up with your transformative idea and then you have to sell it in.” That’s how they break through. He was headed back from such a meeting. Game on. His big question, how do companies track the success of such adventures? We chatted about Google’s approach and others. Who’s got examples?

How To Be A Successful Intrapreneur (Even If You're Old)

I’m sick of being told how to win the hearts and minds of millennials. I’ve never bought into the notion that an entire generation of human beings falls into a prototype we can master. I’ve been brewing this sentiment for decades. I thought the HR meetings I attended as a young HR leader (including charts of “what Gen Xers need”) equally silly.

There’s a spectrum of humans in every generation.

The world changes fast, the generations work to adapt. We ALL need to learn to navigate the evolving landscape. That’s what I found most intriguing about millennial, Dan Schawbel’s, new book: Promote Yourself: The New Rules of Career Success He’s a millennial giving advice to other millennial. It’s full of fantastic advice for millennials, and some for the rest of us.

How to Become an Intrapreneur

What moved me from reading to giving Dan a call was his advice on Intrapreneurship (see definition). Intrapreneurship can serve as a gateway to acquire entrepreneurial skills for later use, or as a way to make a difference and get noticed in your current company.

Dan’s advice on WHY to be an Intrapreneur

Intrapreneurship.

  • Allows you to create new positions and advance in your career faster than you might have been able to on the regular track
  • Gives you unique experiences that differentiate you from your peers.
  • Is less risky than being an entrepreneur because you’ll have the corporation’s resources available.
  • Can be a bridge to becoming full-on entrepreneur later on

Not just kid stuff.

So how do you know if Intrapreneurship is right for you? Dan suggests that if half or more of the following statements are true for you, you should “definitely” consider pursuing intrapreneurship

  1. You’ve got a passion for something your company isn’t doing right now.
  2. You see opportunities that other don’t.
  3. You’re creative and innovative in your thinking.
  4. You’re willing to take risks.
  5. You’re a great networker and can build cross-functional relationships
  6. You’re a natural salesperson.
  7. You’re good at working on teams and collaborating.
  8. You’re politically savvy and understand how your company operates.

What I didn’t see on his list is be “under 35.”

Want to be an intrapreneur? If you are a millennial ask these questions:

If this was your company where would invest?
What’s the next break through idea?

If you are over 35 ask the same thing. It’s not too late.

What are you waiting for?

Want to learn more from Dan? Join him for a Free Webcast on September 10th 5:30-7:30 pm EDT 

Note: While I was writing this post, the guy on the train next to me (not a millennial) and I got to talking. He shared, “Oh, my company is all about this. You come up with your transformative idea and then you have to sell it in.” That’s how they break through. He was headed back from such a meeting. Game on. His big question, how do companies track the success of such adventures? We chatted about Google’s approach and others. Who’s got examples?